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Script by Frank Abe

Story by Frank Abe & Tamiko Nimura

With artwork by Ross Ishikawa & Matt Sasaki

A co-production with Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience


A graphic novel with the story of camp as you’ve never seen it before. Three voices. Three acts of defiance. One mass injustice.


Japanese Americans complied when evicted from their homes in World War II -- but many refused to submit to imprisonment in American concentration camps without a fight.


In this groundbreaking graphic novel, we meet:


JIM AKUTSU, the inspiration for John Okada's No-No Boy, who refuses to be drafted from the camp at Minidoka when classified as a non-citizen, an enemy alien;

HIROSHI KASHIWAGI, who resists government pressure to sign a loyalty oath at Tule Lake, but yields to family pressure to renounce his U.S. citizenship; and

MITSUYE ENDO, a reluctant recruit to a lawsuit contesting her imprisonment, who refuses a chance to leave the camp at Topaz so that her case could reach the U.S. Supreme Court.


Based upon painstaking research, We Hereby Refuse presents an original vision of America's past with disturbing links to the American present.

We Hereby Refuse: : Japanese American Resistance to Wartime Incarceration

  • ISBN: 9781634059763

    Publication Date: 05/18/2021

    Pages: 160

    Size: 6.40(w) x 10.30(h) x 0.70(d)

    Type: Paperback 

    Language: English

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